Lava Flows in Pahoa

Hawaiian volcanoes are shield volcanoes. Compare what your see hear with what you would expect from a stratovolcano eruption.


The Waves will Take Us Away – Climate Change in West Africa

We will never realise the gravity of climate change under it is right in right of us. Singapore is not spared from this.

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More photos at:


Combating sea level rise using sea walls – is this the best & only option? 

Photograph © Andrew Dunn, 04 November 2006.
“We’re coming up with these hard engineering solutions to fight nature. Artificial headlands, seawalls … they are Band-Aid solutions. The most cautious thing to do would be to maintain proper buffer zones.”

Why people still prefer seawalls:

Rissik is sanguine about the concentration of infrastructure around Australia’s coast. “From a pathway from the beach, a local economy grows and, once that is established, it anchors people to that area and change is very difficult.”

Rissik says: “People forget and they build there again.”

Seawalls and other hard engineering methods can be very effective in stopping natural coastal processes – erosion as well as deposit. This resulting in stable coastlines, allowing people to stay and build communities. 

However, how sustainable is this with sea levels rising yearly? There comes a tie where the safer option is to retreat further inland and to establish a buffer zone between water and settlement.

Source: Guardian